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UNCITRAL Secretariat's Explanatory Notes

The following is a list of Explanatory Notes prepared by the Secretariat of the Commission (The UNCITRAL), excluding drafts. Updated on 14.03.2023 


Legal and technical grounds for the creation of the Venezuelan Identification System

The following is a study on the legal and technical feasibility of creating temporary and permanent solutions to put an end to the serious problem that Venezuelans are going through, due to the fact that the competent authority responsible for the issuance of the national passports and identity cards has stopped performing its work. This violation of constitutional guarantees and, in general, o read more...

Contrasting impressions between the provisions of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the long-lasting Venezuelan crisis

The document was prepared on 22 June 2017 within the framework of a collaboration with the Mesa de Zurich. The document was printed as a brochure financed by a funds raised among the group of Venezuelans who attended a public event of the Mesa de Zurich. The funds collected were used to cover the cost of a permit from the Zurich Police Office to hold the event in a square of the city read more...

Recovery of illicitly deviated state-owned assets: How feasible is it?

Presentation performed at the International Summer School on Banking & Capital Markets Law, Villa Vigoni, Loveno di Menaggio, 24 July 2019. The summer school was organized by the Università del Sacro Cuore di Milano jointly with other universities, including the University of Zurich.


The Outsider as Insider: Profiling WTO Panelists for their Impact on World Trade Decisions by M.G. Sarmiento

ISSN : 1875-4120, Issue : Vol. 14, issue 2, Published : May 2017

This paper is part of the Transational Dispute Management (TDM) Non-Legal Adjudicators in National and International Disputes Special prepared by:

Maria Gabriela Sarmiento 
Sarmiento Núñez Consulting, Main Office Caracas & Branch Office Zurich


This ar

The UNASUR Center for the Settlement of Investment Disputes and Venezuela. Will Both Ever See the Light at the End of the Tunnel

Dear Reader,

The research article "The UNASUR Center for the Settlement of Investment Disputes and Venezuela. Will Both Ever See the Light at the End of the Tunnel? written by Maria Gabriela Sarmiento, partner and co-founder of SNC, has been published in the Journal of World Investment & Trade (JWIT) No. 17, Year 2016, Pages 658–68 read more...

The 2012 Draft Constitutive Agreement of the Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes of the UNASUR (November 20, 2015).

Maria Gabriela Sarmiento 
S.C. Sarmiento Nunez Consulting
November 20, 2015
Last review December 16, 2015

Abstract:      This document contains an unofficial translation into English of the Draft Constitutive Agreement of th read more...

E-Commerce Workshop in Saint Lucia. 2001

Legislative requirements for e-commerce

Castries, Saint Lucia. 27 and 30 September 2001 


Basic E-Commerce Training for Pakistan - Legislative Requirements for E-Transactions

Paper prepared by Maria Gabriela Sarmiento under the mandate and on behalf on the International Telecommunication Union in March 2001


The African Region (including Arab countries) - Legal framework for e-commerce

Document prepared by Maria Gabriela Sarmiento under the mandate and on behalf of the International Telecommunication Union on September the 3rd., 2002. An investigation was performed in order to collect the local legislation adopted by countries on electronic commerce, digital signature, data messages, among other subject-matters within the African Region.


The role of specialized agencies in the International System: Fostering Development Through E-Commerce

Presentation prepared by Sarmiento, Maria Gabriela within the mandate of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) for the Centre for Applied Studies in International Negotiations (CASIN), both based in Geneva, Switzerland.

19 September 2001


e-Services Checklist


I. What for?

II. What are the technical and legal requirements?

III. What should Governments do to enhance its development? Article written by Sarmiento, Maria Gabriela (It is a compilation of existing electronic services in February 2002) and published on the website of the Editorial Jurídica VLex. February 2002. 


Developing and least developed countries legal framework on e-commerce, digital signatures, e-certification, e-transactions, CAs and RAs

Research undertaken by Sarmiento, Maria Gabriela under the mandate of the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) within the Electronic Commerce for Developing Countries (EC-DC) project participant countries.

Published on ITU's website on February the 26th, 2001


Citizens and Public Administration in the Information Age. E-public services. Web Self-Service in the Public Sector.

Article written by Sarmiento, M.Gabriela published by the Observatorio de Sociedad, Gobierno y Tecnologías de Información. Universidad Externado de Colombia. Bogota

Research undertaken in March 2005 within the Panamerican Nations.



Informatics and Citizens: What do the new trends have to offer different groups of individuals

Article written by Sarmiento, M.Gabriela in September 2005

Published at the webpage of the: Observatorio de Sociedad, Gobierno y Tecnologías de Información. Universidad Externado de Colombia, Bogota.


Some Thoughts on the Legal Aspects of New Technologies

Article written by Sarmiento, Maria Gabriela published in the "International Conference on Politics and Information Systems: Technologies and Applications", Pista 2005 publication. pages 132-138. July 2005. Miami, Florida


This paper addresses legal and ethical topics raised by the use of Internet for concluding contra read more...